The purpose of this study is to understand the role of international and domestic actors, ideas and processes in the diffusion of public policies. It argues that existing studies on the subject do not provide an adequate explanation of the mechanisms through which diffusion takes place, nor do they sufficiently address the roles of actors affecting the policy transfer process. We address these shortcomings by studying the diffusion of conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs from Brazil and Mexico to the Philippines over the past decade. We use the concept of an ‘instrument constituency’ to delineate and trace the various actors and channels involved in the diffusion of CCTs. The case study shows that these groups of actors dedicated to the articulation, adoption and expansion of particular policy instruments are central players in transnational diffusion of policies and offer a robust explanation of the phenomenon.
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