Global Platform of International Public Policies
Difusão dos PTCs na América Latina

Diffusion of CCTs from Latin America to Asia: the Philippine 4Ps case

Michael Howlett, M Ramesh, Kidjie Saguin


The purpose of this study is to understand the role of international and domestic actors, ideas and processes in the diffusion of public policies. It argues that existing studies on the subject do not provide an adequate explanation of the mechanisms through which diffusion takes place, nor do they sufficiently address the roles of actors affecting the policy transfer process. We address these shortcomings by studying the diffusion of conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs from Brazil and Mexico to the Philippines over the past decade. We use the concept of an ‘instrument constituency’ to delineate and trace the various actors and channels involved in the diffusion of CCTs. The case study shows that these groups of actors dedicated to the articulation, adoption and expansion of particular policy instruments are central players in transnational diffusion of policies and offer a robust explanation of the phenomenon.


Full version in English

[pdf-embedder url=””]


Versão completa em português

[pdf-embedder url=””]



Fernando Macedo

Add comment

Rescheduling of II ICPDDC – São Paulo, Brazil

Dear Friends and Colleagues,

We would like to thank you for your contribution to the II ICPDDC. Due to the outbreak of the Corona Virus (COVID – 19) all over the world and the recent confirmation of 200 cases in Brazil, we regret to inform you that the II ICPDDC must be rescheduled.

This was a difficult decision to make. We have been monitoring the evolution of the situation on a daily basis in the past weeks, as well as the recommendations World Health Organization and the Ministry of Health in Brazil. Considering the health of participants, different university travel bans and the advice of Brazilian institutions to cancel public meetings, we concluded that hosting the conference in May was not prudent.

At this stage, we will work on the Conference logistics of the rescheduling and consult our partners to determine a new date, which will be announced in a few weeks. For participants who won’t be able to attend the conference on the new date, registration fees will be refunded.

All the updates about the Conference will be on our website If you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to contact us at:

With kind regards,

Osmany Porto de Oliveira
ICPDDC Organizer